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DONACION - DONACION REAL CON CARGO

"... dicho contrato constituye, evidentemente, uno de donación real con cargo, esto es que el animus donandi, está motivado por una finalidad particular que debe satisfacer el donatorio o sea por una obligación que asumió el donatario y que constituye la causal impulsiva y determinante del acto jurídico..."

CAS. Nro.: 1039-97/HUANUCO

CONCORDANCIAS:

C.C.: Arts. 185, 186, 1148, 1365, 1371 Y 1642.

Lima, diez de diciembre de mil novecientos noventiocho.

LA SALA CIVIL DE LA CORTE SUPREMA DE JUSTICIA; en la causa vista en audiencia pública de la fecha, emite la siguiente sentencia:

1. MATERIA DEL RECURSO:

Se trata del Recurso de Casación interpuesta por el Alcalde de la Municipalidad Provincial de Pachitea, contra la sentencia de vista de fojas ciento diez, su fecha veinte de abril del presente año, que confirma la apelada de fojas ochentiocho, de fecha once de diciembre de mil novecientos noventisiete, que declara infundada la demanda interpuesta por la Municipalidad Provincial de Pachitea a fojas once, contra el Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social, sobre resolución de contrato, con lo demás que contine.

2. FUNDAMENTOS DEL RECURSO:

Por Resolución de esta Sala Suprema del once de junio último se ha declarado procedente el recurso por las causales de: a) interpretación errónea del Artículo mil ciento cuarentiocho del Código Civil referente a la obligación sin plazo, lo que no quiere decir que si a la fecha el IPSS cuenta con los estudios en marcha se declare infundada la demanda y que la interpretación correcta es que de acuerdo a la naturaleza de la obligación y las circunstancias del caso, se debió haber ejecutado la prestación en el tiempo más breve y no haber dejado transcurrir once años; b) que el Artículo mil trescientos setenticinco del mismo Código ha sido aplicado indebidamente, pues se ha entendido que la demanda fue de resolución de un contrato innominado, cuando se trata de un contrato traslativo de dominio, el que se ha omitido plazo para el cumplimiento de la condición; y se ha efectuado una interpretación errónea del Artículo mil trescientos setentiuno del mismo Código, al considerar que la accionante no puede acogerse a la penalidad de una cláusula incompleta para solicitar la resolución del contrato, cuando este Artículo establece la resolución de un contrato válido por causal sobreviniente a su celebración.

3. CONSIDERANDO: Primero.- Que la sentencia de mérito ha establecido como cuestión fáctica que por escritura pública del trece de mayo de mil novecientos ochentisiete extendida ante el notario de Pachitea don Hilmar Espinoza Morales, el Concejo Provincial de Pachitea cedió al Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social un lote de terreno de mil doscientos cuarentiocho metros cuadrados, ubicado entre la calle Mayro y Lima de la ciudad de Panao, para ser destinado a la construcción de un policlínico para la atención de los asegurados, pactándose que si el IPSS no se llegara a construir dicho policlínico el lote de terreno revertirá a la propiedad del Concejo. Segundo.- Que dicho contrato constituye, evidentemente, uno de donación real con cargo, esto es que el "animus donandi" está motivado por una finalidad particular que debe satisfacer el donatorio o sea por una obligación que asumió el donatario y que constituye la causal impulsiva y determinante del acto jurídico, como así resulta de la concordancia de lo dispuesto en los Artículos ciento ochenticinco, y mil seiscientos cuarentidós del Código Civil. Tercero.- En el caso bajo examen no se fijó plazo para el cumplimiento del cargo, por lo que conforme a lo dispuesto en el Artículo ciento ochentiséis del Código Civil corresponde al Juez fijar el plazo, vencido el cual y por incumplimiento del cargo recién procedería la revocación de la donación y reversión del predio. Cuarto.- Que en consecuencia es correcta la apreciación de los Artículos mil trescientos setentiuno y mil ciento cuarentiocho del Código Civil, por no haberse fijado plazo para el cumplimiento del cargo, y es impertinente lo dispuesto en el Artículo mil trescientos sesenticinco del mismo Código, que se refiere a los contratos de ejecución continuada.

4. SENTENCIA:

Por las consideraciones anteriores, de conformidad con el Dictamen Fiscal: declararon INFUNDADO el Recurso de Casación interpuesto por el Alcalde de la Municipalidad Provincial de Pachitea, y en consecuencia NO CASARON la sentencia de vista de fojas ciento diez, su fecha veinte de abril de mil novecientos noventiocho, CONDENARON al recurrente al pago de la multa de dos Unidades de Referencia Procesal; en los seguidos con Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social, sobre resolución de contrato; DISPUSIERON la publicación de la presente resolución en el Diario Oficial El Peruano, bajo responsabilidad; y los devolvieron.

SS. PANTOJA; IBERICO; SANCHEZ PALACIOS; CASTILLO L.R.S.; CELIS.

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